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Human Growth Hormone - Working Of Secretion Pattern
03.11.2016 12:55

There are three glands in the endocrine system in the brain. These are- the pineal, the hypothalamus and the pituitary. The pituitary gland is responsible for the manufacturing and secretion of the growth hormone in the body. The growth hormones are peptide hormones, which are in the form of short polypeptide chains and proteins.

The growth hormone stimulates the body’s metabolism, as it contains 191 amino acids. It has various other functions like:

  • It supports the activation and deactivation of enzymes in the body.
  • It helps in stimulating mitosis i.e. cellular division and replication.
  • It helps in regulating various tissues, organs, cellular structures and molecules in the body.
  • It increases metabolism and help in protein synthesis.
  • It brings the changes in permeability of cellular membranes.

The process of the secretion of growth hormone goes like this:

  • Manufacturing: The pituitary gland is responsible for not only manufacturing of this growth hormone, but also for maintaining its balance in the body. It also oversees the function and secretion process of other glands.
  • Hypothalamus: The hypothalamus gland located near pituitary gland is responsible for sensing the level of growth hormone in the body. When the level is low, it sends a chemical messenger in the blood stream.
  • Adequacy: The hypothalamus gland secretes somatsostatin to instruct pituitary gland about the levels. If the level is adequate, it instructs to maintain it and if the level is high, it instructs it to decrease the secretion and production of the hormone.

This process remains the same for other hormone-secreting glands in the body. The growth hormone not only stimulates the bone growth but it also helps in additional physiological responses. Generally, the secretion of growth hormone increases while exercising and decreases during sleep. Excess or deficient secretion of growth hormone can lead to dwarfism or gigantism in children.

The bodybuilders or athletes often tend to suffer from acromegaly in which due to the high dosage of growth hormone, the bones and tissues in hands, feet, etc. grow at an abnormal rate with deformities. The secretion of growth hormone starts to decline in mid 30’s. Thus, it is advisable to take foods rich in amino acids and growth supplements.

However, growth supplements must be taken only after the advice of the doctors and within adequate range on the basis of age and health. The balance must be maintained between adequate levels.

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